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Vulcanul Thera – sau povestea Atlantidei se repeta

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Super mega vulcanul Thera, din insula Santorini  , a inceput sa se trezeasca.

Sunt cutremure mici si specialistii au detectat ca nivelul lavei se ridica spre suprafata insulei. Emite bioxid de sulf si daca asta erupe s-a zis cu jumatea de sud a Europei, o parte din Africa si din Asia.

Este  un super-mega vulcan care va afecta viata pe intreg Pamintul. La ultima trecere a lui Nibiru, s-a produs o eruptie gigantica, care a ras de pe fata Pamintului civilizatia Minoica si a afectat pina si Egiptul antic.

Ati auzit de scufundarea Atlantidei?

Din ce in ce mai multe dovezi arata ca Atlantisul se afla pe aceste meleaguri.

Romania va fi afectata, din pacate, dat fiind distanta relativ mica, cca 1200 Km fata de acest super-mega vulcan!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thera_eruption

Insula Santorini, aflată în sudul Marii Egee la 120 de mile marine de Creta, atrage turiștii mai ales datorită faimei potrivit căreia în această regiune s-a găsit legendara Atlantida. Aici se află un sat-castel, Pyrgos, celebru pentru că are mai multe biserici (75) decât case! De altfel, se spune că Santorini este locul în care „sunt mai multe biserici decât case, mai mult vin decât apă, mai mulți măgari decât bărbați”.

Erupții vulcanice

Santorini a erupt de mai multe ori cu variate cantități degajate. Scriitorul antic Strabo este primul care a menționat erupțiile vulcanice și a descris apariția unei noi insule în jurul anului 197 î.Hr.. În continuare au avut loc opt erupții vulcanice în anii 46/47, 726, 15701573, 17071711, 18661870, 19251928, 19381941, 1950 fiind cea mai recentă erupție.

Seismologii si vulcanologii au inceput să monitorizeze foarte atent activitatea seismica ce are loc în ultima săptămână în Santorini.

În timp ce comunitatea ştiinţifică incearca sa para liniştitoare , Institutul de Geodinamica, Observatorul Naţional din Atena, a decis să aşeze în Insulele Ciclade 5 seismografe pentru monitorizarea atentă a fenomenului. Unul va fi amplasat pe insula Kameni, trei de-a lungul crestei de munte şi pe o plajă.

Activitatea neobişnuită a fost înregistrata în vulcanul Thera din cauza magmei care se ridica din partea de jos a craterului vulcanului odata cu creşterea presiunii in con.

Cutremurele care apar sunt de mica intensitate, dar parerea oamenilor de stiinta e ca adâncimea de focalizare este mai aproape de suprafata insulei.

Fenomenul se explică prin ridicarea de magma din partea inferioara a vulcanului care creeaza presiune pe interiorul conului de crater.

Activitatea vulcanică este de scurtă durată, cu o progresie lenta, dar în ultimele săptămâni un miros caracteristic de ou stricat devine tot mai intens.

Sulful există în abundenţă în subsolul unei insule vulcanice.

Să ne reamintim faptul că există trei vulcani activi în zona Helladicul. Vulcani de Milos, Santorini şi Nisyros.

„Monstrul” care doarme

Insula Santorini este un fenomen vulcanic unic în toată lumea , cu Caldera. Semiluna este cunoscuat sub numele de Santorini, Thirasia şi Aspronisi formează un cerc imaginar in mijlocul a ceea ce este craterul lui Santorini, cel mai mare din lume.

Vulcanul s-a trezit pentru prima dată acum 2.500.000 ani şi-a continuat activitatea pana astazi. În această perioadă lungă de timp au avut loc 12 explozii foarte mari.

Nea Kameni şi Palea Kameni s-au format prin eruptii subacvatice şi ele sunt cele mai recente insule în Marea Mediterană. Formarea lui Nea Kameni a început în urmă cu 440 ani, din bucati de lava vulcanica pietrificata.

Ultima eruptie a fost in 1950. Locuitorii care au trăit-o dau descrieri înfricoşătoare: „flăcările izvorând din mare”, „lava ejectata”, „magma stralucitoare”, „marea care clocoteste” „cutremure puternice şi ejectarea de  cenusa vulcanica  „. Acestea sunt doar câteva dintre mărturiile care iti taie respiratia …

Vulcanul din Atlantisul Pierdut

Acum 3500 de ani, o eruptie teribila a vulcanului Thera,pe care geologii o consideră ca fiind una dintre cele mai puternice care au schimbat vreodată cursul istoriei a popoarelor antice mediteraneene.

Dupa ce  vulcanul a explodat pe insulă (care dupa Platon a fost pierdutul Atlantis) , tsunami-ul a ajuns la ţărmurile din Creta si a distrus civilizatia minoica, care la acel moment a fost lider în bazinul Mării Mediterane.

Schimbările de mediu care au avut loc au fost resimţite în întreaga lume, ajungând chiar şi în China şi, eventual, America de Nord şi Antarctica. În istorie toate aceste dezastre sunt legate de unii istorici şi de legenda Atlantidei şi povestea biblică a şapte plăgi ale lui Faraon, cu exodul ulterior din Egipt .

Istoricii şi arheologii par nedumeriti cu privire la data la care a explodat vulcanul din Santorini, eventual undeva între 1645 şi 1500 î.Hr. Nu există nici o dovadă despre ceea ce s-a intamplat cu adevarat, dar oamenii de stiinta sunt capabili să facă comparaţii de o evidenţă detaliată cu vulcanul Krakatoa în Indonezia în 1883.

Eruptia puternica a lui Krakatoa a ucis mai mult de 40.000 de oameni in doar cateva ore, a determinat un tsunami gigant de 12 metri, a ejectat lavă în diferite părţi ale Asiei, a cauzat o scădere a temperaturii de pe tot globul si a creat apusuri de soare ciudat colorate timp de 3 ani. Dovezile sugerează că explozia a fost auzita la  3000 mile distanţă.

Eruptia lui Thera a fost de patru-cinci ori mai puternica decât cea din Krakatoa, în conformitate cu estimarile geologilor, şi energia a fost echivalenta cu explozia simultană a mai multor bombe atomice .

Cateva fotografii ale vulcanului Thera prezentand semne de viata


10 ianuarie 1950 – 2 februarie 1950

20 August 1939 – Iulie 1941

20 August 1939 – Iulie 1941

11 August 1925 – 17 Martie 1928

11 August 1925 – 17 Martie 1928

ziua in care Atlantisul a fost distrus


Prima civilizatie europeana a fost cea Minoica –
stearsa de pe harta de un vulcan si de un tsunami.

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1500 BC volcano that destroyed Atlantis

Emerging consensus that the Thera volcano in 1500 BC destroyed the mythical Atlantis!

The Minoan eruption of Thera (or Santorini) in the Bronze Age (dated via radiocarbon dating of one sample to 1630-1600 BC,[1] corroborated by many other samples to 1654-1611 BC;[2] but 1525-1500 BC archaeologically, according to the Conventional Egyptian chronology[3]) has become the most famous single event in the Aegean Sea before the fall of Troy. The eruption would likely have caused a significant climate upset for the eastern Mediterranean region and possibly the entire world. With an estimated Dense-Rock Equivalent up to 60 cubic kilometers,[4] it was one of the largest volcanic eruptions on Earth during the last few thousand years. The name „Minoan eruption” refers to the Minoan civilization on Crete, which some scholars think was heavily disturbed by this eruption.

Physical effects of the eruption

The violent eruption was centered on a small island just north of the existing island of Nea Kameni in the centre of the caldera. The caldera itself was formed several hundred thousand years ago by collapse of the centre of a circular island caused by the emptying of the magma chamber during an eruption. It has been filled several times by ignimbrite since then and the process repeated, most recently 21,000 years ago. The northern part of the caldera was refilled by the volcano and then collapsed again during the Minoan eruption. Before the eruption, the caldera formed a nearly continuous ring with the only entrance between the tiny island of Aspronisi and Thera. The eruption destroyed the sections of the ring between Aspronisi and Therasia, and between Therasia and Thera, creating two new channels.

On Santorini, there is a 60 m thick deposit of white tephra thrown from the eruption that overlies the soil that marks the ground level before the eruption. The layer is divided into three fairly distinct bands indicating different phases of the eruption.[5]

Since no bodies have been found at the Akrotiri site, it is assumed that there were early indications of vulcanism which would induce the local population to leave the area. The thinness of the first ash layer and the likelihood of this layer being eroded by winter rains indicate that the volcano may have given warning at most months in advance and not years as previously believed.[6] Further archeological excavations at the site may eventually result in finding bodies similar to those found at Pompeii and Herculaneum as a result of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

The Minoan eruption, considered a classic plinian type, created a plume 30-35 km in height, extending into the stratosphere, along with magma coming into contact with the shallow marine embayment, resulted in a violent phreatic eruption. The eruption also generated a 35 to 150 m high tsunami that devastated the north coast of Crete, 110 km (70 mi) away. The tsunami impacted coastal towns such as Amnisos, where building walls have been knocked out of alignment. The tsunami would also certainly have eliminated the Minoan fleet along Crete’s northern shore. On the island of Anaphi, 27 km to the east, ash layers 10 feet deep have been found, as well as pumice layers on slopes 250 meters above sea level. Elsewhere in the Mediterranean there are pumice deposits that could be caused by the Thera eruption.[7] Ash layers in cores drilled from the seabed and from lakes in Turkey, however, show that the heaviest ashfall was towards the east and northeast of Santorini. (Ash found in Crete is now known to have been from a precursory phase of the eruption, some weeks or months before the main eruptive phases, and would have had little impact.[8] Santorini ash deposits were at one time claimed to have been found in the Nile delta, but this is now known to be a misidentification[9]

The volume of ejecta is estimated to have been up to four times what was thrown into the stratosphere by Krakatau in 1883, a well-recorded event, placing the Volcanic Explosivity Index of the Thera eruption at approximately 6. The Thera volcanic events and subsequent ashfall probably sterilized the island, similar to Krakatau. Recent archaeological research by a team of international scientists in 2006 have revealed that the Santorini event was even more massive than previously thought. It expelled 61 cubic kilometres of magma and rock into Earth’s atmosphere compared to previous estimates of only 39 cubic kilometres in 1991.[10] Only the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption of 1815 released more material into the atmosphere.[11]

Dating the volcanic eruption

The Minoan eruption provides a fixed point for aligning the entire chronology of the 2nd millennium BC in the Aegean, because evidence of the eruption occurs throughout the region. However, its exact date is unknown. Current opinion based on radiocarbon dating indicates that the eruption occurred between about 1630 and 1600 BC. These dates, however, conflict with the usual date from archaeology, which is around 1550 BC.

There are numerous archaeological chronologies for the Late Bronze Age, each based on a point of origin for a given material culture. International commerce shipped material culture from Crete, mainland Greece, Cyprus, and Canaan to contexts throughout the eastern Mediterranean. If the Thera eruption could be dated and then associated with a given layer of Cretan (or other) culture, chronologists could use that layer of culture to date other events. Since Thera’s material culture at the time of destruction was most like the „Late Minoan IA (LMIA)” culture on Crete, LMIA is the baseline for relative chronology elsewhere. The eruption also aligns with Late Cycladic I (LCI) and Late Helladic I (LHI) – but before „Peloponnesian LHI”.[12] As of 1989, Akrotiri had also yielded fragments of nine Syro-Palestinian „Middle Bronze II (MBII)” gypsum vessels.[13]

Some scholars believe the radiocarbon dates to be problematic or completely wrong. Some suggest re-scaling archaeological chronologies with the radiocarbon dates. Others look for a compromise between the archaeological and radiocarbon dates for best fits of both sets of data. Re-scaling archaeological chronologies is controversial, because revising the Aegean Bronze Age chronology could require, by association, revising the well-established conventional Egyptian chronology. The debate about the date continues.

It has long been hoped that information from Greenland ice cores and dendrochronology would determine the date exactly. A large eruption, identified in ice cores and dated to 1644 BC +/- 20 years was suspected to be Santorini. Tree ring data shows that a large event interfering with normal tree growth in America occurred in 1629-1628 BC.[14] These events had formerly been associated together. However, volcanic ash retrieved from an ice core demonstrated that this was not from Santorini[8] leading to the conclusion that the eruption may have occurred on another date.

On 28 April 2006, the journal Science published two research papers arguing that new radiocarbon ages required an eruption date between 1627 and 1600 BC. The research published by Manning et al. in their Science paper analysed 127 samples of wood, bone, and seed collected from various locations in the Aegean, including Santorini, Crete, Rhodes and Turkey. The samples were analysed at three separate labs in Oxford, Vienna, and Heidelberg in order to minimise the chance of a radiocarbon dating error. Manning’s research offered a broad dating for the Thera event between 1660 to 1613 BC.[15] Friedrich et al., narrows the time-line for the eruption of Thera to between 1627-1600 BC on a 95% probability, which was facilitated by the rare discovery of an olive tree which had been buried alive on Santorini under a layer of lava rock.[16] Because the tree grew on the island, though, it cannot be certain that its growth was unaffected by volcanic degassing (which would render the radiocarbon ages too early).

The same issue of the journal Science also includes an article quoting eminent archaeologists (Peter Warren and Manfred Bietak) expressing strong scepticism on the new information. At present, then, there is still a dispute between those who believe the radiocarbon data and those who believe in the traditional Aegean chronology. Now that the new radiocarbon dates are published, they will need to be considered by other scholars. It is worth noting that in the past a definitive date for the eruption of Thera has been claimed many times; yet later analysis has always shown such claims to be flawed in some way due to difficulties with radiocarbon methodology or other reasons. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn at the present time.[citation needed]

In 2003 Nicholas Pierce et al. published an article in which they say the late Holocene eruption of the Mount Aniakchak, a volcano in Alaska, is proposed as the most likely source of the glass in the GRIP ice core dating to 1645 BC.[17]

Effects on human civilizations

Volcanic eruptions can impact human civilizations by earthquakes, ashfall, tsunamis, and worldwide climatic effects such as volcanic winters. The impact of Santorini’s massive eruption on civilizations of its time are not well understood and are still open to speculation.

Impact on Minoan civilization

Tsunamis from the pyroclastic flows and caldera collapse would have devastated the navy and ports of the Minoans on the north side of Crete. As the Minoans were a sea power and depended on their naval and merchant ships for their livelihood, the Thera eruption must have impacted the Minoans to some degree. Whether these effects were enough to trigger the downfall of the Minoans is under intense debate. Early conclusions held that the ash falling on the eastern half of Crete may have choked off plant life, causing starvation. It was alleged that 7-11 cm of ash fell on Kato Zakro, while 0.5 cm fell on Knossos. However, when field examinations were carried out, this theory has lost some credibility, as no more than 5 mm had fallen anywhere in Crete.

Earlier historians and archaeologists may have thought this because of the depth of pumice found on the sea floor. Recently, though, it has been established this came from a lateral crack in the volcano below sea level.[citation needed] Also, Significant Minoan remains have been found above the LM I-era Thera ash layer, implying that the Thera eruption did not cause the immediate downfall of the Minoans. The Mycenaean conquest of the Minoans occurred in LM II not many years after the eruption, though; and many archaeologists speculate that the eruption induced a crisis in Minoan civilization, which allowed the Mycenaeans to conquer them. For instance, the palaces adopted a „Kouros”-god from the hills in addition to the Minoan goddess. One of these new idols, at Palaikastro, was subsequently vandalised.[18]

Chinese records

Some scientists correlate a volcanic winter from the Minoan eruption with Chinese records documenting the collapse of the Xia dynasty in China. According to the Bamboo Annals, the collapse of the dynasty and the rise of the Shang dynasty (independently approximated to 1618 BC) was accompanied by „‘yellow fog, a dim sun, then three suns, frost in July, famine, and the withering of all five cereals”.

Impact on Egyptian history

There are no surviving Egyptian records of the eruption. The absence of such records is sometimes attributed to the general disorder in Egypt around the Second Intermediate Period. Scholars J. G. Benett and A. G. Galanopoulos suggest connections between the Thera eruption and the calamities of the Admonitions of Ipuwer, a text from Lower Egypt during the Middle Kingdom or Second Intermediate Period. (During the Second Intermediate Period, Lower Egypt came under the rule of „Hyksos” from Canaan.)[19]

Benett and Galanopoulos have apparently used a date for the Admonitions Of Ipuwer/an Egyptian Sage suggested by Jon Van Setters, as he wrote on this subjest for his dissertation and came to this conclusion. Other dates are possible, including the reign of Hatsheput. Others link heavy rainstorms that devastated much of Egypt and were described on the Tempest Stela of Ahmose I to short term climatic changes caused by the Theran eruption[20][21][22][23]

The theory is not supported by current archaeological evidence which show no pumice layers at Avaris or elsewhere Lower Egypt during the reigns of Ahmose I and Thutmosis III. It has been argued that the damage from this storm may have been caused by an earthquake caused by the Thera Eruption; however, it has also been argued on account of the verbs used in the stela–specifically „entering”, „dismantling”, „hacking up”, and „toppling”, all words which indicate defacement by humans–that the damage was caused during war with the Hyksos, and the storm reference is merely an exaggerated figurative reference to chaos, upon which the Pharaoh was imposing order.[23] There is a consensus that Egypt, being far away from areas of significant seismic activity, would not be significantly affected by an earthquake in the Aegean.[23] Furthermore, other documents, like Hatshepsut’s Speos Armedios, depict similar storms, but are clearly speaking figuratively, not literally.[23] It is thus considered likely that this stele is just another such reference to the Pharaoh overcoming the powers of chaos and darkness. Contrarily, it was recorded on the verso of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus that during Ahmose’s Hyksos campaign, „the sky rained”, which was an extremely rare event in ancient Egypt, and could quite possibly indicate a rainstorm.[24]

Greek traditions

Irish scholar John V. Luce suggested in 1969 that the eruption of Thera and volcanic fallout inspired myths of the Titanomachy in Hesiod’s Theogony. The background of the Titanomachy is known to derive from the Kumarbi cycle, a Bronze Age Hurrian epic from the Lake Van region; but the Titanomachy itself could have picked up elements of western Anatolian folk memory as the tale spread westward. Mott Greene compared Hesiod’s lines with volcanic activity, citing Zeus’ thunderbolts as volcanic lightning, the boiling earth and sea as a breach of the magma chamber, immense flame and heat as evidence of phreatic explosions, among many other descriptions. Greene concluded that Theogony „leaves no doubt that the phenomena described are volcanic eruptions.”[25]

Deucalion’s flood is dated in the chronology of Saint Jerome to ca. 1460 BC.

Biblical traditions

One possibility for the effects of Thera’s eruption is the origin of the story of the ten plagues to which Egypt was subjected, as proposed by John G. Bennett.[26] According to the Bible, Egypt was beset by such misfortunes as the transforming of their water supply to blood, the infestations of frogs, gnats, and flies, darkness, and violent hail. These effects are compatible with the catastrophic eruption of a volcano in different ways. While the „blood” may have been red tide which is poisonous to human beings, the frogs could have been displaced by the eruption, and their eventual death would have given rise to large numbers of scavenging insects. The darkness could have been the resulting volcanic winter, and the hail the large chunks of ejecta spewn from the volcano. The tsunami that resulted from the Thera eruption is also speculated to have caused the parting of the sea that allowed the Israelites, under Moses, safe passage of the Red Sea, possibly devastating the Egyptian army with the returning wave. Exodus mentions that the Israelites were guided by a „pillar of smoke” during the day and a „pillar of fire” at night, which many scholars have speculated could be references to volcanic activity. However, unambiguous dating of bristlecone pines and other dating methodologies places the Thera eruption at a date significantly different from the supposed dates of the Exodus from Egypt. It is possible that there was a distorted memory amongst the Hebrews of the Theran eruption.[27]

Association with Atlantis

Starting with Spyridon Marinatos’ 1939 landmark paper,[28] this cataclysm at Santorini and its possibility to have caused the fall of the Minoan Civilization centered on Crete is sometimes regarded as a likely source or inspiration for Plato’s story of Atlantis. Detractors of the theory say that Santorini and Crete combined would not be the size of Plato’s Atlantis, and the date of the Minoan collapse does not match Plato’s dates for the fall of Atlantis. Scholars such as James W. Mavor and A. G. Galanopoulos argue that the error in date and size could be caused by a mistranscription of the Ancient Egyptian or Mycenaean Linear B symbol for „hundred” as „thousand”. There would be little confusion in the visual appearance of hieroglyphic symbols of Egyptian numeric values; but if the Atlantis story does derive from Egypt, it has at some point been translated into Greek, which Galanopoulos suggests is the point of confusion.[29][19]

References

1. ^ New research in Science: date of the largest volcanic eruption in the Bronze Age finally pinpointed (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

2. ^ Manning, SW et al. (2006). „Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.”. Science 312: 565-569. DOI:10.1126/science.1125682.

3. ^ Polinger-Foster, K; Ritner, R (1996). „Texts, Storms, and the Thera Eruption”. JNES 55: 1-14.

4. ^ Sigurdsson, H et al. (2006). „Marine Investigations of Greece’s Santorini Volcanic Field”. Eos 87 (34): 337-348.

5. ^ DA, Davidson (1979). „Aegean Soils During the Second Millennium B.C. with Reference to Thera”. Thera and the Aegean World I. Papers presented at the Second International Scientific Congress, Santorini, Greece, August 1978: 725-739, UK: The Thera Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

6. ^ G, Heiken; McCoy, F (1990). „Precursory Activity to the Minoan Eruption, Thera, Greece”. Thera and the Aegean World III, Vol 2: 79-88, London: The Thera Foundation.

7. ^ Pumice on south Mediterranean – remnant of the Thera eruption? (2004). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

8. ^ a b Keenan, Douglas (2003). „Volcanic ash retrieved from the GRIP ice core is not from Thera”. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 4 (11): 1097. DOI:10.1029/2003GC000608. 1525-2027. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

9. ^ Guichard, F et al. (1993). „Tephra from the Minoan eruption of Santorini in sediments of the Black Sea”. Nature 363 (6430): 610-612. DOI:10.1038/363610a0.

10. ^ Santorini eruption much larger than originally believed (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

11. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). „Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815”. Progress in Physical Geography 27 (2): 230-259.

12. ^ Lolos, YG (1989). On the Late Helladic I of Akrotiri, Thera On the Late Helladic I of Akrotiri, Thera. The Thera Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

13. ^ Warren, PM (1989). Summary of Evidence for the Absolute Chronology of the Early Part of the Aegean Late Bronze Age Derived from Historical Egyptian Sources. The Thera Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

14. ^ Baillie, MGL (1989). Irish Tree Rings and an Event in 1628 BC. The Thera Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

15. ^ Manning, Stuart W; et al. (2006). „Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.”. Science 312 (5773): 565. DOI:10.1126/science.1125682. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

16. ^ Friedrich, Walter L; et al. (2006). „Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Dated to 1627-1600 B.C.”. Science 312 (5773): 548. DOI:10.1126/science.1125087. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

17. ^ Pearce, N. J. G., J. A. Westgate, S. J. Preece, W. J. Eastwood, and W. T. Perkins (2004). „Identification of Aniakchak (Alaska) tephra in Greenland ice core challenges the 1645 BC date for Minoan eruption of Santorini”. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 5. DOI:10.1029/2003GC000672.

18. ^ Driessen, Jan (2001). „Crisis Cults on Minoan Crete?”. Proceedings of the 8th International Aegean Conference Göteborg, Göteborg University, 12-15 April 2000,, Liège, Belgique: l’Université de Liège. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

19. ^ a b Galanopoulos, Angelos Georgiou (1969). Atlantis: The Truth Behind the Legend. Bobbs-Merrill Co. ISBN 978-0672506109.

20. ^ EN, Davis (1989). A Storm in Egypt during the Reign of Ahmose. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.

21. ^ Goedicke, Hans (1995). ‘Studies about Kamose and Ahmose’. Baltimore: David Brown Book Company, Chapter 3. ISBN 0-9613805-8-6.

22. ^ Foster, Karen Polinger; Ritner, Robert K (1996). „Texts, Storms, and the Theran Eruption”. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 57: 1-14.

23. ^ a b c d Wiener, MH; Allen, JP (1998). „Separate Lives: The Ahmose Tempest Stela and the Theran Eruption”. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 57: 1-28.

24. ^ Redford, Donald B (1993). Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691000862.

25. ^ Luce, John Victor (1969). The end of Atlantis: New light on an old legend (New Aspects of Antiquity). London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0500390054.

26. ^ Bennett, John G. (September 1963). „Geo-Physics and Human History: New Light on Plato’s Atlantis and the Exodus”. Systematics 1 (2). Retrieved on 2007-04-13.

27. ^ The Eruption of Thera: Devastation in the Mediterranean. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.

28. ^ Marinatos, S (1939). „The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan Crete”. Antiquity 13: 425-439.

29. ^ Mavor, James (1997). Voyage to Atlantis: The Discovery of a Legendary Land. Park Street Press. ISBN 978-0892816347.

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Important notes on Thera and Atlantida

1.

„There are no surviving Egyptian records of the eruption.”

Looks like the archaeologists limited their search to the proverbial ivory tower.

In the real world an eruption like Santorini’s must leave traces in a country that had been literate for over 1500 years prior to the eruption.

There are at least 4 articles in the medical press (see below) discussing volcanic-related illnesses in medical papyri, most notably burns from acids (actives in remedies are alkaline). In those pre-industrial days the only source of caustic acids were from volcanoes (try getting medical attention for a burn from vinegar or yoghurt!).

2.

Besides the texts you mention, and the 6 aforementioned med papyri (see ref’s below) there are LOTS of Egyptian texts that either detail or merely mention the effects ot Santorini (tsunamis, ash fallout, „nuclear winter”, plume, quakes, etc.).

Let’s just go over those you mention:

Ipuwer. Sure: fallout (clothes get dirty), acidified waters (red Nile), nuclear winter (countryside in shambles, famine), plume (darkness), quakes (turning soil, noisy soil), …

The Tempest Stela of Ahmose I isn’t (wrong place-Southern Egypt, wrong time- ~1570 BC, wrong direction for the storm – from the south …)

The pumice stuff is nonsense: pumice retrieved in buildings only means that the people who lived there were using it. It says nothing as to when it formed.

Hatshepsut’s Speos Armedios speaks of Egypt’s history (… I fixed the mess I inherited …).

Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: jackpot!

The general impression is the one you describe: war against the Hyksos (either Kamose or Ahmose), etc.

However,

– rain is not worth recording is not after a drought (what this the case in Rhind? nope)

– Rhind speaks of a precipitation after a sound heard the day before. Sound travels at ~800 km/hr, but wind-blown ash won’t go more than the speed of the wind (25 km/hr is a medium wind). What the text describes is an eruption followed by ash fallout. Notice that the Nile delta (as per the sites mentioned in Rhind) is ~800 km from Santorini.

The refs (can’t advertise my book here, but I can list the relevant articles):

Medical papyri describe the effects of the Santorini eruption on human health, and date the eruption to August 1603 – March 1601 BC. Med Hypotheses, 2007; 68: 446-449, SI Trevisanato

Six medical papyri describe the effects of Santorini’s volcanic ash, and provide Egyptian parallels to the so-called biblical plagues. Med Hypotheses, 2006; 67:187-190, SI Trevisanato

Treatments for burns in the London Medical Papyrus show the first seven biblical plagues of Egypt are coherent with Santorini’s volcanic fallout. Med Hypotheses, 2006; 66:193-6, SI Trevisanato

Ancient Egyptian doctors and the nature of the biblical plagues Med Hypotheses, 2005; 65: 811-813, SI Trevisanato

All this stuff has been published for some time, brought to the attention of archaeologists, Egyptologists, etc. to no avail. Let’s see what happens with the upcoming material on tv, and hopefully in more articles and books.

Written by dezordinea

Iunie 23, 2011 la 2:45 pm

Postat in Uncategorized

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